Along the way our speaker will be very open to questions from the audience and is up for a round of "stump the astronomer" with anyone that attends the event in the Hop Mahal! You won't wanna miss this captivating presentation!
Once Dr. Fisher concludes his eye opening presentation at 7pm those interested in Hopservatory viewing or a brewery tour will be guided to there respective activity.
The admission for this special event is $40, all proceeds go to support the Worthy Garden Club & Pine Mountain Observatory. Price includes entry, a beer, light appetizers, a star tour, and a brewery tour!
Registration is required! Please sign up at the following link before Jan, 20th: Uoalumni.com/cosmicperspective
About the Speaker
Scott Fisher is a lecturer, outreach director, and director of undergraduate studies in the Department of Physics at the UO, and is also the director of the Pine Mountain Observatory in Bend. At the UO, he teaches introductory level astronomy classes, and is also working on setting up research and internship opportunities for students at large telescope facilities located around the planet.
Prior to his appointment at UO he was a program director at the National Science Foundation in Washington, DC, and before that was a permanent member of the staff of the Gemini Observatory, the fifth-largest telescope in the world. At Gemini he supported scientists from around the globe with their research projects and was the lead outreach scientist for the observatory.
Hop farming (like any kind of farming) is not for the faint of heart. Yes, with enough elbow grease and luck, there will be a day when you can walk between rows of towering green hop plants, dog at your side, sipping a beer and admiring your handiwork as the sun sets over the mountains, knowing full well that these hops, your hops, have a buyer and will be soon be cut down and shipped to the nearest brewery or pellet mill for profit. Just don't expect that day to come easily.
I've found that a hop farmer's life is greatly romanticized. It's noble work, to be sure, and satisfying for those who make it their profession, but most people have no idea what it's like to run a farm, let alone a garden in their backyard. They picture peaceful mornings spent dutifully ticking off chores, post-pb & j afternoon naps in the sunshine, and the satisfaction of knowing you've done a hard day's work. I sometimes think of the hours spent pulling weeds in the hot summer sun, itching and sneezing from the dust and debris; those cold, windy spring days bundled up inside Carhartts training bines with frozen fingers; and the unavoidable moment of turning over a leaf to find that spider mites have finally arrived for the season. The truth lies somewhere in the middle. A hop farmer has good days and bad days, but at the end of every season, there is usually a great sense of satisfaction when reflecting upon all the hard work that's gone into your farm over the past few months.
I get a lot of inquiries from people curious about starting a hop farm, so if you're one of them, I've got answers for you. I interviewed a few of our local farmers to get down to the nitty-gritty of hop farming in Central Oregon because, unlike the Willamette Valley, we do not have a long tradition of growing hops in the area. We don't have generational farms that span hundreds of acres with long-standing contracts. Most of our farms are one or two acres, less than five years old, and flying by the seat of their pants to get their hops sold every year. It's a different industry than the valley - young, sometimes chaotic, constantly evolving, but full of potential. So what do Central Oregon hop farmers have to say about their own operations? I asked them a few questions and here's what I got.
Did you follow a guide when planning your yard? What was it - manual, website, consultant, or fellow farmer?
Nate Safty of Deschutes Hop Farm "looked at a number of sites and local yards before building the original trellis," eventually finding a mentor in Andrew Bloo of Cascade Hop Farm. Local resources are very valuable! Most Central Oregon growers are more than willing to help out new farmers, and we have a group that meets every month or so to share information and resources. Join our Facebook group if you're interested in attending.
Other farmers did their research on the internet, specifically using the University of Vermont Hop Project page. UVM has plenty of resources on their site including cost projection sheets, hop research reports, conference videos and presentations, and agricultural management strategies. Though it's targeted at Northeastern growers, much of the information is still relevant to the Pacific Northwest. Other good literary resources are The Hop Grower's Handbook by Laura Ten Eyck and Dietrich Gehring and Small Scale & Organic Hop Farming by Rebecca Kneen.
Safty explains than in the end, your hop yard has to fit the equipment you own and the unique geographic conditions of your property, so do all the research you want, but feel free to adapt to your specific needs.
How do you feel about the initial financial investment in a hop farm? Were you prepared for it?
"We knew it would be costly," says Susan & Gary Wyatt of Tumalo Hops, "but after ten years, it is starting to pay for itself." Starting a hop farm requires a significant investment for infrastructure, equipment, and land (if you don't already have it). All of our farmers knew what they were getting into, especially with the help of the USA Hops budgeting worksheet, and knew that they wouldn't see returns on that investment for a number of years. There were a few things that popped up that some hadn't considered, though, like equipment - or space - to spray, harvest, dry, pelletize, package and store. If you're looking to get into hops, you'll need these eventually, even if you don't need them the first year. So make sure you work them into your budget.
What were your most valuable suppliers for materials?
Bend Rigging won this question by far, mentioned by every single hop farmer in the area. They carry all the cabling supplies you'll need for your hop yard and rent out large equipment to help with installation. Trellis poles can be hard to source locally, but try Round Tree Lodgepole Products in Bend before looking outside the area. Ewing is great for irrigation supplies, and farm and ranch supply stores like Wilco, Coastal, and High Desert Ranch & Home can meet all your chemical and fertilizer needs. Shop local when possible!
What problems did you encounter in your initial years of farming, and what would you have changed in the planning/installation phase to avoid those problems?
Central Oregon farmers are in agreement that noxious weeds present one of the biggest challenges during the establishment phase of a hop yard. Nichole Krummen of Cloverdale Hops says, "we spent our whole first season weed whacking just to get our poor babies some sun. Weeds stole the nutrients and sunlight from our first year hops, thus stunting their growth." So make sure you do your ground prep! Even one year of stunted growth can affect a hop plant for the rest of its life. Clear weeds before planting and have some sort of plan to control them in the future, whether that's manual cultivation, chemical sprays, or interplanting between rows.
Trellis pole selection is also a big concern, as Jim Brooks of Ynot Hops found out. "Do not use untreated poles!" he warns, as they'll crack and need to be replaced in as soon as two years. If you are growing organic or just want to avoid treated poles, RotBloc makes a great non-toxic barrier wrap that protects wood against ground-line rot. Make sure your entire trellis system is secure by burying poles four feet down and using the correct ground anchors and cable accessories. Nothing takes down a hop yard faster than a Central Oregon windstorm - just ask the Wyatts.
Last but not least, many of our farmers mentioned spider mites. While uncommon in the mild, humid conditions of the Willamette Valley, spider mites make a spectacular appearance in Central Oregon in late June or early July. They love our hot, dry, windy climate and can decimate an entire yard in a matter of weeks. SCOUT, SCOUT, SCOUT. Have a plan in place to control the mites if they get beyond your IPM threshold (which they most likely will). They are the biggest biological threat you'll face in your hop yard.
What difficulties do you continue to face?
This list continues with the standard farming problems of weed control, pest control, irrigation system upkeep, etc...
A few farmers, including Brooks, have had trouble acquiring the proper equipment to spray, harvest, dry, and store their hops. Many new farmers are not aware or don't believe they'll need these things in the first year, but not being prepared can catch you off guard, as many activities like harvesting and spraying for weeds and pests are extremely time-sensitive. Farmers with previous experience fared much better as they already had the proper equipment and knew how and when to use it: ladders, tractors, tillers, sprayers, and extra outbuildings.
Being so new and small, almost all Central Oregon hop farmers have struggled with marketing their hops and finding a reliable buyer year after year. Large farms like those in the Willamette and Yakima Valleys have a leg up because of their large acreage and long-standing contracts, so it's been difficult to tap into that market. Many are having good luck with fresh hop sales, as breweries can then market a truly-local Central Oregon beer, but it's still a hurdle than must be faced year after year.
Any other advice for aspiring hop farmers?
"Go small and see if this is what you want to do," Wyatt says. Hop farming is a huge commitment, and you can set yourself up for failure if you go too big too fast. Make sure you have the equipment, and most importantly, the labor to get things done on time. "Go into it knowing that it is a lot of back breaking work," advises Krummen. "You'll learn a ton, and fellow hop farmers are a great source of info and typically willing to help." Safty also praises the local hop farming community, saying his mentorship with Bloo has saved him many costly mistakes. So rely on your community! They're the ones who are experts on your growing conditions, resources, and market. They can tell you what NOT to do because they've made those mistakes in the past. "Try to plan ahead as to WHO you think will buy your hops and what variety they would want," says Brooks, bluntly adding, "don't expect to make any money," at least in the first few years.
For most Central Oregon hop farmers, their work is first and foremost a labor of passion. Sure, they want to make money, but they're out there in the sun, wind, and rain because they love what they do. Think you have the heart to join our community? We'd love to have you.
Own a brewery and want to purchase our hops? Then we'd REALLY love to have you.
Worm composting, or vermicomposting, is a great way to put your kitchen scraps to good use. It's cheap, easy, eco-friendly, and makes some of the best fertilizer out there.
The best worms to use in your compost bin are red wigglers, Eisenia fetida. They're not the big, brown earthworms you find in your garden, but rather the skinny, red ones you can buy at a bait shop. Red wigglers are social, near-surface dwellers that are usually found in the top, leaf-litter layer of the forest. Though photosensitive, they stay near the surface to actively seek out decaying plant material, consuming up to 75% of their own weight in organic matter every day. They reproduce quickly, are tolerant of a myriad of soil conditions, and require little care to keep alive. All of this makes them the perfect little creatures for vermicomposting!
So what happens during the composting process, and what makes vermicompost so darn good?
The dirty little secret is that worm compost, or worm castings, is really just worm poop. But a worm's gut is a magical thing. When organic matter passes through a worm, it's ground up into mineralized particles that are rich in both nutrients and beneficial microorganisms. When used as a fertilizer, worm castings improve the health of the soil nutritionally, structurally, and biologically. Not only does it add generous amounts of slow-release nitrogen, calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus to the soil, but it also adds the beneficial microorganisms that increase nutrient uptake and help fight against plant parasites, pests, and diseases. Because of the structure of the casts, soil becomes more porous, aerated, and better able to retain water. Worm castings can be used as a topdressing for indoor or outdoor plants or sprinkled into planting holes in the spring. Use it as you would any other granular fertilizer and watch your plants thrive.
One of the best parts about vermicomposting is that you can do it at home - for free - with little effort. All you need is a bin, some newspaper, kitchen scraps, and an open mind. Most people assume that this process will literally stink up your kitchen, but it's actually quite the opposite. Good composting conditions (adequate air flow, measured feeding, and just the right amount of moisture) only emit "earthy" smells. If it stinks, you're doing something wrong.
To decide what kind of bin you need, you'll have to figure out where you're going to keep it and how much food waste you produce. You can use either wooden or plastic containers. Wooden bins have better air flow and are easier to manage from a moisture standpoint, but they can be a bit messy and only last a couple of years. They're usually more convenient when stored outdoors or in a garage. Plastic bins (like Rubbermaids or five-gallon buckets) are tidy, easy to come by, great for under-the-sink storage, but tend to have moisture and humidity problems when mismanaged. We've tried both and prefer plastic buckets for at-home composting and wooden bins for outdoor/garden use. You can find or build these in almost any size you want. It's always better to start small, then work your way up as you master the art of worm management (spoiler alert: it's not that hard).
Hopservatory Manager, NASA JPL Solar System Ambassador